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Urban North-Eastern English

Tyneside to Teesside

Joan C Beal, Lourdes Burbano Elizondo, Carmen Llamas

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This is a new volume in the Dialects of English series - a series of short, accessible but authoritative books on specific dialect varieties, each written by a specialist or specialists who have done first-hand work on the variety concerned.

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List of figures and tables
Map of locations referred to in this book
1. History, Geography, Demography and Culture
1.I. Introduction
1.II Geography
1.II.i. The North-East
1.II.ii Newcastle and Tyneside
1.II.iii. Sunderland and Wearside
1.II.iv. Middlesbrough and Teesside
1.III. History
1.III.i. The North-East
1.III.ii. Newcastle and Tyneside
1.III.iii. Sunderland and Wearside
1.III.iv. Middlesbrough and Teesside
1.IV. Culture
1.IV.i. The North-East as a culturally salient region
1.IV.ii. Newcastle: a regional capital?
1.IV.iii. Local Rivalries
2. Phonetics and Phonology
2.I. Introduction
2.II. Delimiting the region
2.III. Variation within the region
2.III.i. Perceptions of Variation
2. III.ii. Sources
2.IV. Vowels
2.IV.i. Introduction
2.IV.ii. FACE
2.IV.iii. GOAT
2.IV.iv. NURSE
2.IV.vii. PRICE
2.IV.viii. MOUTH
2.IV.xi. unstressed vowels
2.V. Consonants
2.V.i. Introduction
2.V.ii. /p t k/
2.V.iii. /r/p
2.V.iv. /h/
2.V.v. /l/
2.VI. Suprasegmentals
2.VII. Current changes
2.VII.i. Introduction
2.VII.ii. FACE and GOAT
2.VII.iii. /p/, /t/ and /k/
2.VII.iv. TH-fronting
2.VII. v /r/
2.VIII. Conclusion
3. Morphosyntax
3.I. Introduction
3.II. Pronouns
3.II.i. Personal Pronouns
3.II.ii. Relative Pronouns
3.III Definite and Indefinite Articles
3.III.i. The Definite Article
3.III.ii. The Indefinite Article
3.IV. The Northern Subject Rule
3.V. Negation
3.V.i. Punctual Never
3.V.ii. Negative Concord
3.V.iii Auxiliary Contraction
3.V.iv. Uncontracted Negatives
3.V.v. Interrogative Tags Local forms of negated do
3.VI. Modal Verbs
3.VI.i. Range of Modal Verbs
3.VI.ii. Epistemic must
3.VI.iii. Double Modals
3.IV. Conclusion
4. Lexis and Discourse Features
4.I. Introduction: Social changes and lexical attrition
4.II. Past research into North-eastern dialect vocabulary
4.III. Sources of the North-eastern vocabulary
4. IV. Case Studies
4.IV.i. Case Study 1: The Tyneside Linguistic Survey lexical questionnaire
4.IV.ii. Case Study 2: Lads and Lasses
4.V. Discourse markers
4.V.i. Intensifiers
4.V.ii. Sentence-final elements
4.V.iii. Other uses of like
4.V.iv. Right dislocation
4.V.v. Terms of endearment
4.VI. Conclusion
5. Annotated bibliography and references
5.I. History, Geography, Demography and Culture
5.II. Phonetics and Phonology
5.III. Morphosyntax
5.IV. Lexis
5.V. References cited in this text

About the Author

Joan C. Beal is Professor of English Language at the University of Sheffield and series editor for Edinburgh University Press's Dialects of English series. Before moving to Sheffield she spent 30 years at Newcastle University as a student and later lecturer/ senior lecturer in the School of English. She was co-investigator on the AHRC-funded Newcastle Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English and has given interviews on TV and radio and in the local and national press on the cultural importance of Geordie.Joan Beal was born in Warrington and took her BA and PhD at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Her teaching and research interests are in the fields of dialectology and the history of English post 1700 and she often works on the interface between these two fields. She is also interested in issues of place and identity, both with reference to language and in a broader cultural context.

Lourdes Burbano Elizondo gained her MLitt in English Linguistics in 2001 from Newcastle University and her PhD (titled Language Variation and Identity in Sunderland) in 2008 from the University of Sheffield. In 2006 she joined Edge Hill University where she has worked as a Senior Lecturer in English Language ever since.Lourdes's research interests and publications focus on language variation and change, especially on the urban north-eastern variety of Sunderland. Her research reflects her interest in sociolinguistic research methods and in exploring the social meaning of language variation and the use of language to construct social identities.

Carmen Llamas lectures in sociolinguistics at the University of York. She is co-editor (with Dominic Watt) of Language and Identities (2010) and (with Peter Stockwell and Louise Mullany) of The Routledge Companion to Sociolinguistics (2007). Her research deals primarily with phonological variation and change in the North East and the Scottish-English border region.


Based on extensive research in a variety of sites, this invaluable book covers the history and the current state of Northern varieties of English, touching on the production and perception of sounds, words, and structures. It will be essential for anyone studying the area.

- Barbara Johnstone, Professor of Rhetoric and Linguistics, Department of English, Carnegie Mellon University

A concise and highly readable overview of a dialect area that is both highly salient yet perhaps surprisingly diverse, the authors have hit the right balance between linguistic detail and the social, geographical and historical context in which language is and has been used in the North East.

David Britain, Professor of Modern English Linguistics, Universität Bern

- David Britain, Professor of Modern English Linguistics, Universitat Bern

A brief, reader-friendly and up-to-date overview of the varieties spoken in the North-East of England which should become a standard work and starting point for all scholars working on varieties in the North of England.

- Sandra Jansen, Brighton, English Studies

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