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The Transition Towards Revolution and Reform

The Arab Spring Realised?

Sonia L. Alianak

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Why do some Arab Spring uprisings led to reforms and others to revolutions?

The Arab Spring created attempts to transition toward democracy by the peoples of Tunisia, Egypt, Morocco and Jordan. This study compares the methods used by the secular leaders of Tunisia and Egypt to deal with people power demanding revolution with the methods that the monarchs of Morocco and Jordan resorted to in accommodating their people’s priority of reform. In contrast with the monarchs, the secular leaders avoided resorting to the palliative of religion to ensure the stability of their rule and were, as a result, unable to survive.

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Contents

1. Introduction
Unit I: The Transition Towards Revolution
2. The Transition towards the Jasmine Revolution of Tunisia
3. The Transition towards the Egyptian Revolution and Counter-Revolution
Unit II: The Transition Towards Reform
4. Reforming the Moroccan Monarchy
5. Reforming the Jordanian Monarchy
6. Conclusion
Bibliography of Cited Sources.

About the Author

Sonia L. Alianak is Professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley. She is author of Middle Eastern Leaders and Islam: A Precarious Equilibrium (2007).

Reviews

This volume goes far beyond journalistic accounts of the Arab Spring. It not only provides a necessary comparative perspective but discusses events within the much-needed context of broad theoretical views, including those models developed by the author.

- Professor James Lutz, Indiana University-Purdue University at Fort Wayne

‘This study examines why some of the 2011 Arab uprisings ended in revolution while others ended in reform. Alianak compares Tunisia, Jordan, Egypt, and Morocco, all of which initially elected Islamist parities, and their attempts at transitioning to democracy. The study finds that in countries with secular leaders, such as those in Egypt and Tunisia, the people resorted to revolution, while in Morocco and Jordan, where religion was used as a palliative to ensure stability, the kings were able to opt simply for reform … Ultimately, the study finds that the Arab Spring has not been realized and that, as of summer 2013, all four countries have returned to a state in which they prioritize stability in order to ensure economic prosperity.’



- The Middle East Journal

- The Middle East Journal, Volume 69, No 1
'A readable and useful addition to the literature on a momentous period that addresses a fascinating question: How did some Arab regimes successfully ride the wave of change that hit the Middle East in early 2011 while others fell? The seeming greater durability of Arab monarchies compared to republican regimes is perhaps the most interesting phenomenon noted by Alianak, and the one she examines most closely.'
- Jonathan Spyer, Middle East Quarterly, Summer 2015

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