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The Hollywood Meme

Transnational Adaptations in World Cinema

Iain Robert Smith

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The first book to interrogate the transnational adaptations of Hollywood films

Did you know that a Turkish remake of The Exorcist replaced the Catholicism with Islam? Or that James Bond and Batman team up together in the 1966 Filipino film James Batman? Or that a Bollywood remake of Memento has become one of the biggest box-office successes in India of all time?

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1. Tracing The Hollywood Meme: Towards a Comparative Model of Transnational Adaptation

2. Hollywood and the Popular Cinema of Turkey

  • 2a Üç Dev Adam (1973) // Spiderman
  • 2b Turist Ömer Uzay Yolunda (1973) // Star Trek
  • 2c Şeytan (1974) // The Exorcist
  • 2d Dünyayı Kurtaran Adam (1982) // Star Wars

3. Hollywood and the Popular Cinema of the Philippines

  • 3a Dynamite Johnson (1978) // The Six Million Dollar Man
  • 3b For Y’Ur Height Only (1982) // James Bond
  • 3c Alyas Batman en Robin (1993) // Batman
  • 3d Darna: Ang pagbabalik (1994) // Wonder Woman

4. Hollywood and the Popular Cinema of India

  • 4a Koi… Mil Gaya (2003) // E.T.
  • 4b Sarkar (2005) // The Godfather
  • 4c Heyy Babyy (2007) // Three Men and a Baby
  • 4d Ghajini (2008) // Memento




About the Author

Iain Robert Smith is Lecturer in Film Studies at King’s College London. He is author of The Hollywood Meme: Transnational Adaptations in World Cinema (Edinburgh UP, 2016) and co-editor of Media Across Borders (2016). He is co-chair of the SCMS Transnational Cinemas Scholarly Interest Group, and co-investigator on the AHRC-funded research network Media Across Borders.


In its illuminating look at adaptations, copies, and remakes of Hollywood texts in the popular film industries of Turkey, the Philippines, and India, Smith¹s book challenges its readers to reconsider preconceived notions of how cultural hegemonies operate, arguing for and unearthing more nuanced and reciprocal forms of interaction and cross-fertilisation between Hollywood and global film culture. Sharply argued and offering intriguing insights into the stranger realms of cultural appropriation, this book is a delight to read and an important intervention into popular genre studies and studies of transnational practices in world cinema.

Professor Tim Bergfelder (University of Southampton, UK)

'An interesting read for academics working in (popular) genre studies, studies of transnational adaptations and remake studies, as well as for people who want to know more about the Bollywood remake of ‘Memento’, or the teaming up of James Bond and Batman in the Filipino ‘James Batman’.'
- Eduard Cuelenaere, Ghent University, Communications
'Smith’s histories should provide ample inspiration for new theoretical and national border and boundary crossings, and for new forms of creative and hybrid thinking. Like any exemplary franchise instalment, Smith’s book works just as well in anticipation as it does in execution, hopefully with more histories, more sequels, more spinoffs, and more extensions coming soon.'
- Kyle Meikle, SCREEN

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