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The End of the Roman Republic 146 to 44 BC

Conquest and Crisis

Catherine Steel

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In 146 BC the armies of Rome destroyed Carthage and emerged as the decisive victors of the Third Punic War. The Carthaginian population was sold and its territory became the Roman province of Africa. In the same year and on the other side of the Mediterranean Roman troops sacked Corinth, the final blow in the defeat of the Achaean conspiracy: thereafter Greece was effectively administered by Rome. Rome was now supreme in Italy, the Balkans, Greece, Macedonia, Sicily, and North Africa, and its power and influence were advancing in all directions.

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About the Author

Catherine Steel is Professor of Classics at the University of Glasgow. She is the author of Cicero, Rhetoric, and Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2001); Reading Cicero (London: Duckworth, 2005) and numerous articles and book chapters on Cicero, Roman oratory and Roman history. She is currently leading a five-year project funded by the European Research Council to edit the fragments of the Republican Roman orators.


This is a very readable account of a momentous and exceedingly violent time in Roman history. It manages to navigate numerous historiographic debates on this period lucidly.

- Christopher J. Dart, University of Melbourne, Ancient West and East

To sum up: Steel has provided a lucid and persuasive narrative of the late Republic, complemented by a series of perceptive and thought-provoking analyses: there is a real wealth of ideas here. I will certainly be recommending the book to my students, and consulting it frequently myself too.

- Journal of Roman Studies, John R. Patterson, Magdelene College, Cambridge

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