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Scotland, Darien and the Atlantic World, 1698-1700

Julie Orr

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The history of a seventeenth-century Scottish trading colony on the Gulf of Darien

This book synthesises the rare indigenous voice with newly discovered archival sources in Spain, Jamaica and the United States. The result is a new and expanded chronicle of the Scottish Panamanian initiative. It broadens what we know about the Company of Scotland beyond British history and into its rightful place in the saga of the multinational, tumultuous seventeenth-century Atlantic world.

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Maps and Figures
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Unintended Itineraries I: Desertion, Opportunity and a Spy
Chapter 3. Unintended Itineraries II: Prisoners
Chapter 4. Admirals, Governors and Slavetraders
Chapter 5. The Long Reach of Spanish Justice
Chapter 6. The View from Spanish America
Chapter 7. View from Disparate America
Chapter 8. Darien Consequences
Appendix I  Caledonia: The Declaration of the Council constituted by the Indian and African Company of Scotland, for the government and direction of their Colonies and Settlements in the Indies
Appendix II  Articles of Agreement betwixt the Council of Caledonia and Captain Ephraim Pilkingtoun

About the Author

Julie Orr is an independent scholar who acquired a PhD in history from the University of Dundee following a career in environmental health and science for a series of tribal, state and federal governments.


A richly layered account of this remarkable episode in Scottish history. Fresh light, based on exhaustive research, is shed on the reaction there was internationally to the Scots’ audacious settlement of New Caledonia, but also on the trials and tribulations – and successes - of the survivors. A wonderful book.

- Christopher Whatley, Dundee

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