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A Reader

A. L. Macfie


In the period of decolonisation that followed the end of the Second World War a number of scholars, mainly Middle Eastern, launched a sustained assault on Orientalism - the theory and practice of representing 'the Orient' in Western thought -accusing its practitioners of misrepresentation, prejudice and bias. As a result an intense debate occurred regarding the validity of the charges made, involving not only Orientalists but students of history, anthropology, sociology, women's studies and the media.

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Part 1: Foundations of a Myth 1. The Indian Form of Government, James Mill
2. Gorgeous Edifices, G. W. F. Hegel
3. The British Rule in India, Karl Marx
Part 2: The Rise of Oriental Studies 4. Les Commencements de l'Orientalisme, Pierre Martino
5. The Asiatic Society of Calcutta, Raymond Schwab
Part 3: The Foundations of a Critique 6. Phenomenon and Thing-in-itself, F. Nietzsche
7. On Hegemony and Direct Rule, A. Gramsci
8. Truth and Power, M. Foucault
Part 4: Orientalism in Crisis 9. Orientalism in Crisis, Anouar Abdel-Malek
10. English-speaking Orientalism, A. L. Tibawi
Part 5: An Apology for Orientalism 11. Apology for Orientalism, F. Gabrieli
Part 6: An Elaborate Account 12. Shattered Myths, E. Said
13. Arabs, Islam and the Dogmas of the West, E. Said
14. My Thesis, E. Said
15. On Flaubert, E. Said
16. Latent and Manifest Orientalism, E. Said
Part 7: A Marxist Interpretation 17. Marx and the End of Orientalism, B. S. Turner
Part 8: An American Response 18. Three Arab Critiques of Orientalism, D. P. Little
Part 9: Further Critiques 19. Second Critique of English-speaking Orientalists, A. L. Tibawi
20. On the Orientalists Again, A. L. Tibawi
Part 10: Said's Orientalism: Reviews and Review Articles 21. Orientalism at the Service of Imperialism, S. Schaar
22. Hermeneutics versus History, D. Kopf
23. Enough Said, M. Richardson
24. Orientalism and Orientalism in Reverse, Sadik Jalal Al-Azm
25. Orientalism: A Black Perspective, Ernest J. Wilson III
26. The Question of Orientalism, Bernard Lewis
Part 11: Qualifications and Elaboration 27. "Gorgeous East" versus "Land of Regrets", E. J. Moore-Gilbert
28. Orientalist Constructions of India, R. Inden
29. Between Orientalism and Historicism, Aijaz Ahmad
30. Humanising the Arabs, B. Melman
31. Indology and the Case of Germany, S. Pollock
32. Turkish Embassy Letter, L. Lowe
33. History, Theory and the Arts, J. MacKenzie
Part 12: Orientalism and Feminism 34. Orientalism, Hinduism and Feminism, R. King
Part 13: Orientalism Reconsidered 35. Orientalism Reconsidered, E. Said
Part 14: Beyond Orientalism 36. Exit from Orientalism, F. Dallmayr
37. From Orientalism to Global Sociology, B. S. Turner.

About the Author

Alexander Lyon Macfie's publications include The Eastern Question (1988; 1996), The Straits Question (1993), Ataturk (1994), and The End of the Ottoman Empire (1998).


For students this new reader will be most helpful because it supplies a good selection of readings which will enable students to examine the elements of the modern theory of anti-Orientalism and some of the main criticisms of that theory. The division between Orientalists and anti-Orientalists is as complete as that which formerly obtained between Marxists and Anti-Marxists. It is a compliment to Dr Macfie that he has produced a reader of such balance that it could well be found tolerable by both groups.
this collection is indispensible for any reading list dealing even marginally with Orientalism.
There can be little doubt that a reader covering this debate [on Orientalism] would be of enormous value to a whole variety of courses in several disciplines in many Universities across the English-speaking world, as well as in Europe.
- Professor John Mackenzie, Lancaster University
The arrival of a 'reader', a collection of 'texts' on the subject, seems to draw a line under the fierce debates of the sixties to eighties. The topic becomes a subject for textual study; Alexander Macfie's book provides a painless visit of the battlefields...orientalism is a good topic for a reader since the literature is diverse and dispersed, and Macfie has done a good job.