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Force Short of War in Modern Conflict

Jus Ad Vim

Edited by Jai Galliott

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Provides a new analysis for bringing the rules of war into alignment with contemporary means of warfare

These essays explore the overarching phenomenon of how force short of war is being used in modern conflict, and how it impacts just war theory. They show that we need to bring the rules of war into alignment with increasingly digital means of conducting kinetic warfare through the force short of war paradigm.

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Notes on Contributors

1. Introduction: The Rise of Force Short of War

Part I. The Need for Recalibration

2. Asymmetry in Modern Combat: Explaining the Inadequacy of Jus ad Bellum and Jus in Bello
Jai & Cassitie Galliott

3. The Fog of War: Violence, Coercion and Jus ad vim
Danielle L. Lupton & Valerie Morkevičius

4. The Responsibility to Protect and Uses of Force Short of War
Eamon Aloyo

Part II. Options for Recalibration

5. From Jus ad Bellum to Jus ad Vim: Recalibrating Our Understanding of the Moral Use of Force
Daniel R. Brunstetter & Megan Braun

6. A Framework for an Ethics of Jus ad Vim in Context of Human Rights
Christopher Ketcham

7. Jus ad Vim: The Morality of Military and Police Use of Force in Armed Conflicts Short of War
Seumas Miller

8. Just War Theory, Armed Force Short of War and Escalation to War
John W. Lango

9. Jus ad Vim and the Question of How to do Just War Theory
Christian Nikolaus Braun & Jai Galliott

Part III. Problems for Recalibration

10. On the Redundancy of Jus ad Vim: A Response to Daniel Brunstetter and Megan Braun
Helen Frowe

11. Are Novel Jus ad Vim Principles Needed to Judge Military Measures Short of War?
Shawn Kaplan

12. Moral Injury, Mission-Drift and Limited War
James Gillcrist & Nick Lloyd

13. Pacifism and Targeted Killing as a Force Short of War
Nicholas Parkin

14. In Defence of Jus ad Vim: Why We Need a Moral Framework for the Use of Limited Force
Daniel R. Brunstetter

About the Author

Jai Galliott is Group Leader of Values in Defence & Security Technology at the Australian Defence Force Academy at the University of New South Wales; Non-Residential Fellow at the Modern War Institute at the United States Military Academy, West Point and Visiting Fellow in The Centre for Technology and Global Affairs at the University of Oxford. He is a defence analyst and expert on the ethical, legal and strategic issues associated with the employment of emerging technologies, including cyber systems, autonomous vehicles and soldier augmentation. His publications include: Ethics and the Future of Spying: Technology, National Security and Intelligence Collection (Routledge 2016); Military Robots: Mapping the Moral Landscape (Ashgate 2015); Super Soldiers: The Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (Ashgate 2015); and Commercial Space Exploration: Ethics, Policy and Governance (Ashgate 2015).


The use of force short of war is a new topic in political and military thought. I cannot imagine a better introduction to the topic than this book. Jai Galliott has brought together a group of writers representing all the possible positions, and their arguments are spirited and engrossing.

- Michael Walzer, Princeton

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