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European Multiculturalisms

Cultural, Religious and Ethnic Challenges

Edited by Anna Triandafyllidou, Tariq Modood, Nasar Meer

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Proposes a common European intellectual framework to evaluate recent developments in European multiculturalism

The heightened security awareness in the wake of the 9/11 attacks and the London and Madrid bombings has resulted in a 'crisis of multiculturalism'. Now is the time to look at the renewed challenges that multiculturalism faces today.

Each chapter in this interdisciplinary book reviews the actual state of affairs in several countries in relation to the theories behind immigrant minority claims. With a special focus on Muslim immigrants, the contributors look at the value issues entrenched in multiculturalism and the policy challenges and measures adopted to address them.

Key features

  • Focuses on 7 European countries: Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece and Spain
  • Gives an overview of different approaches to multiculturalism
  • Looks at issues of citizenship, diversity, civic recognition, gender, religious diversity & education, integration, anti-discrimination policies and social policy

Approaches multiculuralism in 5 ways

  1. Charts the legal, political and educational challenges posed by migration-related religious, ethnic and cultural diversity in European countries
  2. Applies political theory to these practical challenges and the value systems involved
  3. Assesses the policy solutions adopted in different countries
  4. Compares different policies and models, and how they are implemented
  5. Discusses whether all solutions are bound in their national contexts or whether they are relevant across Europe


Notes on the Contributors
1. Introduction: Diversity, Integration, Secularism and Multiculturalism, Anna Triandafyllidou and Tariq Modood
PART I, Theoretical Developments in a Comparative European Perspective
2. Framing Contemporary Citizenship and Diversity in Europe, Tariq Modood and Nasar Meer
3. The Multicultural States We're In, Nasar Meer and Tariq Modood
4. Beyond Post-national Citizenship: Access, Consequence, Conditionality, Per Mouritsen
5. Islamic Difference and the Return of Feminist Universalism, Nilufer Gole and Julie Billaud
PART II, Cultural Diversity and Policy Responses in the European Union
6. Religious Diversity and Education: Intercultural and Multicultural Concepts and Policies, Anna Triandafyllidou and Ruby Gropas
7. Active Immigrants in Multicultural Contexts: Democratic Challenges in Europe, Ricard Zapata Barrero and Ruby Gropas
8. Not a One-way Road? Integration as a Concept and as a Policy, Frauke Miera
9. Ethnic Statistics in Europe: The Paradox of Colour-blindness, Angéline Escafré-Dublet and Patrick Simon

About the Author

Professor Anna Triandafyllidou directs the Cultural Pluralism Research Area at the Global Governance Programme of the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute, in Florence, Italy. She is also Visiting Professor at the College of Europe in Bruges, Belgium, and the Editor in Chief of the Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies.

Tariq Modood is Professor of Sociology, Politics and Public Policy and the founding Director of the Centre for the Study of Ethnicity and Citizenship at the University of Bristol. He is a Fellow of the British Academy.

Dr Nasar Meer is Reader and Chancellor's Fellow in the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences at the University of Strathclyde.


The volume presents a timely and important contribution to both empirical and theoretical literatures on multiculturalism, migration and integration. It offers clarifications of the ideas and policies that have been at the centre of the perceived crisis of multiculturalism – or, what states have actually been doing – and contributes to our conceptual understanding of these developments. It offers the reader the information and the tools to both comprehend and evaluate the tense political climate surrounding multiculturalism, immigration and Muslims.

- Elise Rietveld, Cardiff University, e-International Relations

The book is very accessible, well written throughout, relatively jargon free and as such suitable for a wider readership … In sum, European Multiculturalisms is a timely and much-needed addition to the study of multiculturalism because it covers and illuminates a wide range of issues that have come to preoccupy public discourses in many European countries – discourses, to be sure, that can only benefit from the balance and rigour of the work at hand.

- Jan Michael Kotowski, University of California, Nations and Nationalism