Table of Contents – Democracy: A Reader

Preface to the Second Edition


Introduction: Democracy – Triumph or Crisis?

Part I: Traditional Affirmations of Democracy


1 Pericles, Funeral Oration

2 Aristotle, The Politics

3 Niccolò Machiavelli, The Discourses

4 Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan

5 Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract

6 James Madison (et al.), The Federalist Papers

7 John Stuart Mill, Representative Government

8 Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America

9 The Putney Debates

10 Thomas Paine, Rights of Man

11 The National Assembly of France, Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

12 Abraham Lincoln, The Gettysburg Address

13 Joseph A. Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy

Part II: Key Concepts

Section 1: Freedom and Autonomy


14 Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract

15 Immanuel Kant, On the Common Saying: ‘This May Be True in Theory but it Does not

Apply in Practice’

16 Benjamin Constant, The Liberty of the Ancients

Compared with that of the Moderns

17 Isaiah Berlin, Two Concepts of Liberty

18 Robert Paul Wolff, In Defense of Anarchism

Section 2: Equality


19 John Locke, The Second Treatise of Government

20 Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract

21 Jean-Jacques Rousseau, A Discourse on the Origin of Inequality

22 R. H. Tawney, Equality

23 Bernard Williams, The Idea of Equality

Section 3: Representation


24 Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract

25 Edmund Burke, Speech at the Conclusion of the Poll, 3 November 1774

26 James Mill, Essay on Government

27 Hanna Fenichel Pitkin, The Concept of Representation

28 Anne Phillips, The Politics of Presence

29 Iris Marion Young, Justice and the Politics of Difference

30 Michael Bakunin, The Illusion of Universal Suffrage

31 Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Parliamentary Isolation

Section 4: Majority Rule


32 Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract

33 Richard Wollheim, A Paradox in the Theory of Democracy

34 John Stuart Mill, Representative Government

35 Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America

36 Giovanni Sartori, The Theory of Democracy Revisited

Section 5: Citizenship


37 Aristotle, The Politics

38 T. H. Marshall, Class, Citizenship and Social Development

39 Will Kymlicka and Wayne Norman, The Return of the Citizen

40 Bernard Crick, Civic Republicanism and Citizenship: The Challenge for Today

Part III: Critiques of Democracy

Section 6: Conservative, Elitist and Authoritarian Critiques


41 Plato, The Republic

42 Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France

43 Roger Scruton, The Meaning of Conservatism

44 Benito Mussolini, The Doctrine of Fascism

45 Carl Schmitt, The Concept of the Political

46 Max Weber, Economy and Society

47 Robert Michels, Political Parties

48 Giovanni Sartori, Anti-Elitism Revisited

49 Joseph A. Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy

Section 7: Marxist and Socialist Critiques Introduction

50 Karl Marx, On the Jewish Question

51 Karl Marx, The Civil War in France

52 Vladimir Ilich Lenin, The State and Revolution

53 Ralph Miliband, Marxism and Politics

54 C. B. Macpherson, Democratic Theory, Essays in Retrieval

Section 8: Feminist Critiques


55 Mary Wollstonecraft, Vindication of the Rights of Woman

56 Diana Coole, Women in Political Theory

57 Sheila Rowbotham, Feminism and Democracy

58 Susan Mendus, Losing the Faith: Feminism and Democracy

Part IV: Contemporary Issues

Section 9: The Market Introduction

59 Friedrich Hayek, The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism

60 Allen Buchanan, Ethics, Efficiency, and the Market

61 Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom

62 David Beetham, Liberal Democracy and the Limits of Democratization

63 Hilary Wainwright, Arguments for a New Left

64 John F. Weeks, Wealth Accumulates and Democracy Decays

65 Wendy Brown, American Nightmare: Neoliberalism, Neoconservatism, and De-Democratization

Section 10: Civil Society


66 Jean L. Cohen and Andrew Arato, Civil Society and Political Theory

67 Robert D. Putnam, Bowling Alone

68 Paul Hirst, Associative Principles and Democratic Reform

Section 11: Participation


69 Geraint Parry and George Moyser, More Participation, More Democracy?

70 Hanna Fenichel Pitkin and Sara M. Shumer, On Participation

71 Carole Pateman, Participation and Democratic Theory

72 Tom DeLuca, The Two Faces of Political Apathy

73 Amy Gutmann and Dennis Thompson, What Deliberative Democracy Means

Section 12: The Internet


74 Merlyna Lim and Mark E. Kann, Politics: Deliberation, Mobilization, and Networked Practices of Agitation

75 Manuel Castells, Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age

76 Evgeny Morozov, The Net Delusion: How Not to Liberate the World

Section 13: Nationalism


77 Ghia Nodia, Nationalism and Democracy

78 David Miller, Citizenship and National Identity

79 Erika Harris, ‘The People’, Identity and Democracy

80 Craig Calhoun, Nationalism and Democracy

Section 14: Cosmopolitan Democracy

Introduction 460

81 Ulrich Beck, Methodological Cosmopolitanism

82 Luis Cabrera, The Practice of Global Citizenship

83 Daniele Archibugi, World Citizenship

84 John S. Dryzek, Global Democracy and Its Setbacks

85 Jürgen Habermas, The Post-National Constellation and the Future of Democracy

86 Norrie MacQueen, The Prospect of ‘Post-Westphalian’ Intervention

Section 15: Religion


87 Asef Bayat, Islam and Democracy: What is the Real Question?

88 Robert W. Hefner, Public Islam and the Problem of Democratization

89 Michael Reder and Josef Schmidt, Habermas and Religion

90 Fred Dallmayr, Whither Democracy? Religion, Politics and Islam

91 John Keane, The Life and Death of Democracy

Section 16: Multiculturalism


92 Charles Taylor, The Dynamics of Democratic Exclusion

93 Will Kymlicka, Multicultural Citizenship

94 Iris Marion Young, Justice and the Politics ofDifference

95 Charles W. Mills, The Racial Contract

Section 17: Democracy and Violence


96 Hannah Arendt, On Violence

97 Michael Mann, Two Versions of ‘We the People’

98 John Schwarzmantel, New Forms of Violence

99 Zygmunt Bauman, Global Frontier-land



Democracy A Reader

Democracy: A Reader,  2nd Edition is edited by Ricardo Blaug and John Schwarzmantel